Highlights from the History of God's People:

1. Three Threats, Three Apologists, Three FathersThe second century of Christian history saw rapid growth in the Christian movement, as the fledgling church faced political threats under Rome, combined with theological and philosophical threats from within. This called forth the remarkable apologetical labors of men like Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and Tertullian. All the while the church was blessed with leaders who had been trained by the apostles themselves, and who provided a high example of courage and confidence in the face of overwhelming pressure. Play Audio Play Video
2. Constantine the GreatThe Roman emperor Constantine changed the course of history by officially embracing the Christian message and by implementing a public policy favorable to the Christian movement. While his true motives have been questioned by some, history bears witness to the fact that at this moment, a dramatic shift took place in the history of God's people, and a new chapter began in which the Christian movement became central to the policies of Rome and the West. Play Audio Play Video
3. Athanasius contra mundumThe dominant character of the fourth century of Christian history must be Athanasius, the man who not only championed the orthodox understanding of Christian teaching at the Council of Nicaea, but who also single-handedly defended it for the next 50 years against overwheming pressure. This great Christian hero preserved the central doctrines of Christian theology so that for generations to come, his name was associated with the heart of Christian devotion and fortitude. His gravestone was marked 'contra mundum,' against the world, and in this he set a high and remarkable example for thousands who would come after him. Play Audio Play Video
4. Ambrose and AugustineAmbrose, the Bishop of Milan, bridged the period from Athanasius and Augustin. He was a stalwart defender of the Christian affirmations of Nicea against Arian distortions, and a defender of the Church against political intrusion. He played a pivotal role in the events leading to the conversion of Augustin, and until Augustin, and was the most articulate representative of the Christian faith in the world. Play Audio Play Video
5. The Fifth Century and St. PatrickWhen St. Patrick was kidnapped by Irish slavers in the year 405 a.d., he thought he would never see his home or family again, and his resentment toward the Irish was deep and strong. Over time, however, he came to love the Irish, and vowed that if ever freed from slavery, he would return to preach the gospel to the people he had once so deeply resented. His vision was realized, and for forty years, Patrick labored among the Irish, establishing a foundation for Christian understanding that would last for centuries after his death.Play Audio Play Video
6. Franks, Brits, and Pope GregoryWith the collapse of the Roman Empire, the domains of the former power fell into a patchwork of decentralized regions, with the church serving as the only unifying influence. Within a few decades, however, a new political power arose in Gaul led by Clovis, the man who united the Franks and took control of most of the region that would eventually become France. About the same time, Pope Gregory sent the missionary monk Augustine to preach to the Angles and Saxons who had taken control of a major part of Britain.Play Audio Play Video
7. The Rise of Islam and Mission of. BonifaceThe religion founded by Mohammed spread rapidly throughout the seventh century, finally reaching Spain and threatening Christian Europe and the Frankish kingdom. At the Battle of Tours, the Christian leader, Charles Martel, withstood the invasion and pushed the Islamic forces back into Spain where they remained for several hundred years. At about the same time, the missionary Boniface brought the gospel to Frisia and Saxony, regions of Gaul as yet untouched by the good news of Christ, and the same Charles Martel provided sustained support for his ministry for many years. Play Audio Play Video
8. CharlemagneThe greatest king of the Franks, Charlemagne, devoted his life to the task of living out a Christian ethic in the midst of the complicated poitics of the early middle ages. While greatly expanding the Frankish kingdom, he at the same time established a new standard for educational opportunity, including both rich and poor, noble and common, in his vision for a culture in which the message of Christ would be carried throughout the regions under his influence. Charlemagne was not perfect, and his critics had often pointed out his failings, but on balance, given the nature of the times in which he lived, one can hardly help but be impressed with his acheivements, and his consistent determination live according to the ethic of Christ.Play Audio Play Video
9. Alfred the GreatThe Anglo-Saxons had occupied Britain in the 600s, but in the years thereafter, had largely embraced the Christian faith, established a more peaceful civilization than had been the case previously. They were stunned in the early 800s as the Vikings invaded the same territory, throwing them back in violent waves of invasion and conquest. The dominant personality of the ninth century, Alfred the Great, met the challenge of the invading Danes, and opened the door to a new chapter of life in the British Isles, thus leaving a mark in history that would never be forgotten. Play Audio Play Video
10. St. AnselmThe greatest Christian thinker between Augustine and Thomas Aquinas was undoubtedly St. Anselm, whose penetrating insights left a lasting contribution to the Church's understanding of the nature of God, and the work of Christ. Anselm's deep examination of Christian teaching, however, only tell half the story of this remarkable Christian leader. In this presentation, we explore the rest of his story, which can only be characterized as high adventure and great courage in the face of difficult and challenging pressures. Play Audio Play Video
11. St. Bernard of ClairvauxMost Christian historians agree that the greatest Christian of the early 12th century was Bernard of Clairvaux, a man who excelled in all areas of Christian ministry and leadership. His powerful influence led to a renewed interest in and understanding of the humanity of Christ, and his deeply devotional emphasis served to recover an important part of Christian worship at a time when there had been considerable spiritual decline in the leadership of the Church.Play Audio Play Video
12. Peter Waldo, first light of ReformationThe first hint of the movement that would become a protest against the decline of the central leadership of the Church in the late middle ages came with a little known character named Peter Waldo. His reading of the New Testament led him to the conviction that the Church leaders had lost their way, and in simplicity of life and message, he attempted to call it back to its New Testament moorings. His followers, the Waldensians, persisted for centuries as a persecuted sect in Europe, but with unfailing vigilence the small group of persisted in their devotion to Christ and the purity of the gospel message as they understood it.Play Audio Play Video
13. St. Francis of AssisiOne of the most beloved personalities of Christian history, Saint Francis, started a movement that shaped the Christian conscience in a manner that continues to resonate through the ages. His devotion to Christ and to others, left a mark and a standard for heartfelt compassion and service that has inspired countless millions to this day. In this brief summary of his life, we have a chance to see the beginnings of this great servant of humanity, and reflect on how his example can lead each of us to seek out those opportunites to be an instrument of God's peace and grace.Play Audio Play Video
14. Thomas AquinasThe waning years of the Crusades brought considerable skepticism, cynicism, and fragmentation to European Christianity, and the prospects for the church at the time seemed to be less than happy ones. It was just at this time, however, that one of the greateest geniuses of Christian history emerged and by his life and thought a great deal of ground was recovered for the cause of Christ. Thomas Aquinas was not only a great thinker, however, but also a man of deep faith and devotion to Christ, and this devotion permeated all of his efforts and made him of the defining personalities of the late middle ages.Play Audio Play Video
15. John Wyclif and the Babylonian Captivity of the PapacyThe man often called the 'morning star' of the Reformation, John Wyclif, live during a stormy time in English history. As the Hundred Years War raged, and as the pope threw his support in favor of the enemies of England, Wyclif's message found a ready audience among many English. More than politics, however, informed the life of the influential figure. His translation of the scriptures, and his deep study of their content, convinced Wyclif that the church had strayed from its central message and mission, and Wyclif courageously called for a renewed devotion to Christ and the scriptures, even though it put his life at great risk to do so. Play Audio Play Video
16. John Huss and the Great Papal SchismThe heir and successor to John Wyclif, John Huss, carried on his tradition of affirming the simplicity of the gospel and challenging the corruption of the leadership of the church. From his preaching platform of the Bethlehem Chapel in Prague, he argued for a return to the central truths of the New Testament. His growing influence led to his trial and execution by the very leaders he had so vigorously criticized, but by his death even greater forces were unleashed that would eventually erupt in the sweeping movement known as the Reformation.Play Audio Play Video
17. Joan of Arc and the Hundred Years WarThe fifteenth century was filled with upheaval, and forces were at work in many quarters that would prepare the way for the Reformation. In Spain, Isabella and Ferdinand were successful in recovering all of the Iberian Peninsula from the Islamic Moors, and their children became important figures who tied Europe together in its various dynastic factions. The Hundred Years War raged between France and England, in a contest that would determine the history of those two powers for centuries to come. This conflict called forth one of the most remarkable individuals of all time, Joan of Arc, whose career is as mysterious as it is inspirational. This discussion covers these topics, summarizing the highlights, and noting the themes that shaped ensuing events for centuries. Play Audio Play Video
18. The Renaissance and SavonarolaThe explosion of new learning that dominated the Renaissance also brought with it new expressions of corruption in the highest levels of leadership in the church. The powerful voice of the Dominican Monk, Girolamo Savonarola, resounded throughout Italy, and especially Florence, calling people to a deeper devotion to a life of devotion and restraint. His voice was finally cut short, however, when the politics of the day turned against him. His legacy persisted for years, and to this day he represents a great example of the power of one courageous voice in a time of decline and decay.Play Audio Play Video
19. The Renaissance: Fuel for the ReformationThe Medici Pope, Leo X, authorized the sale of indulgences, in part to raise money for the rebuilding of St. Peter's in Rome. More than any other single factor, it was this that sparked the reaction of Martin Luther, and triggered a series of events that would ultimately explode into European history as the Protestant Reformation.Play Audio Play Video
20. The Life of Martin Luther (part1)The Reformation was triggered by Martin Luther's objections to the sale of indulgences, objections he distilled in his 95 Theses. The simple propositions swept through Europe in just a few months, sparking one of the greatest turning points in all of world history, and thrusting Luther himself into the center of the upheaval. Play Audio Play Video
21. Martin Luther and the Reformation (part 2)After the Diet of Worms, Luther labored as a reformer for 25 years, and succeeded in launching a movement that has continued and grown to the present day. He championed the simplicity of the gospel against powerful opposing forces, and left a legacy that has modeled Christian courage throughout the years of ensuing history.Play Audio Play Video
22. The Impact of the Reformation and William TyndaleThe repercussions of the Reformation spread across Europe, and one of the most significant of those effects was the strong impulse to provide the Bible in the language of the masses. An early champion of this effort was the English scholar, William Tyndale, whose tireless efforts laid the foundation for the best known English translation of all, the King James Version. Though he paid for his efforts with his life, his legacy remains a lasting monument to the power of the scriptures and the inestimable value of the Word of God in the language of life.Play Audio Play Video
23: The Life of John Calvin (part 1)Along with Martin Luther, the other great personality of the Reformation was John Calvin, who was born in France in 1509, when Luther was about 25 years old. Calvin's sweeping intellect and genius helped to consolidate the thinking of the Reformation, and created the second great tradition originating from that era, the Reformed Tradition. While Calvin is often criticized and misunderstood, the effects of his contribution are impossible to overstate, and this two part treatment of his life attempts to give a fair summary of this remarkable individual. Play Audio Play Video
24: The Life and Times of John Calvin (part 2)John Calvin became the dominate influence in the city of Geneva for some 15 to 20 years, and in spite of critics who blame him for the death of Michael Servetus, his impact for good can hardly be overstated. Calvin was especially important in the development of English Puritanism, and Scottish Presbyterianism, both of which contributed heavily to the framework for American Constitutionalism. He commitment to education, health care, compassion for the poor and ill, together with his powerful intellect in defense of the Reformed faith, combined to produce an indelible impact that continues to shape the world to the present day. Play Audio Play Video
25. Henry VIII and the English ReformationThe Reformation came to England through the back door, as Henry VIII, determined to divorce his Spanish Queen, Catherine of Aragon, sought but failed to obtain papal permission to do so. His break from papal authority established an independent church in England, but the church remained fundamentally Catholic in its theology and liturgy, leading to heroic efforts by others to move England toward a posture more fully reflecting the Reformation. The success of those efforts, however, would have to wait for a later time.Play Audio Play Video
26. Edward VI and Mary TudorFollowing the death of Henry VIII, England experienced the roller-coaster of a strong protestant king following by an even more determined Catholic Queen. The blood and pain inflicted on the English people during this period left a lasting impact that was finally substantially resolved in the policies of Elizabeth, but for the moment, the outcomes were anything but certain. Against this backdrop careers of courageous spirits on both sides of the controversy paved the way to eventual ideas of religious freedom and liberty of conscience. Play Audio Play Video
27. The Impact of the Reformation on EuropeThe Reformation produced a strong defensive action by the Catholic Church, usually referred to as the counter-Reformation, which comprised the Council of Trent, the establishment of the Jesuit Order, and the Inquisition. Together these were highly effective in meeting the challenge of the Reformation, but the efforts at reform nevertheless touched European culture at profound levels, reshaping a vision of European society in ways that continue to be important to the present day. Play Audio Play Video
28. John Knox and the Scottish Reformation (part 1)The Scottish Reformation was triggered by the remarkable career of John Knox, a man trained as a priest, but who came to embrace the perspective of the Reformation through a combination of forces that would not only change his life, but the entire history of a nation. Many have tied the birth of modern democratic politics to his innovations, garnered from the mind of John Calvin, but implement through the power of personal courage, determination, grit, and relentless determination to bring to life a new and better vision of human society than anything that had gone before. Play Audio Play Video
29. John Knox: Prisoner, Exile, ReformerWhen the forces of the Reformation siezed control of St.Andrews castle, they appointed John Knox to be the official preacher for the community. His ministry was cut short, however, when military from France overwhelmed St. Andrews and took Knox himself prisoner. He was condemned to serve in a French galley, which usually was taken as a death sentence. Nineteen months later, however, he was released in a prisoner exchange and after recovering his health, because the court preacher in England under Edward VI. The ascension of Mary Tudor in 1553 change the course of the English Reformation, and Knox escaped to the continent, to the city of Geneva, where he drank in the spirit of Calvin and the Reformation, leading to his famous comment that Geneva was the most Christian city on earth.Play Audio Play Video
30. John Knox and the Scottish Reformation (part 3)When John Knox returned to Scotland in 1559, he was soon met with the challenge of the return from France of Mary Queen of Scots. Their relationship defined the entire controversy in Scotland, monarch against preacher, Catholic against Protestant. In the end, Mary was her own undoing however, and by the time of his own death in 1572, the Scottish Reformation was well underway toward a reformulation of religious and political principles that would eventually become central to the American experiment of constitutional governance. Play Audio Play Video
31. The Reformation in FranceIn France, the Reformation movement, generally referred to as the Huguenots, triggered a protracted and bloody struggle that lasted for years, and culminated in the St. Bartholomew Day Massacre. The Huguenots were supported by many, including two courageous women, Renee of Ferarra, and Jeanne d'Albert of Navarre. The complex political and religious turmoil represents one of the saddest chapters in the history of the 16th century, but none can doubt the depth of the devotion and resilience of these remarkable women. Play Audio Play Video
32. Gustavus Adolphus and the Thirty Years WarThe 'Religious Wars' that followed the Reformation tore at the very fabric of Europe, first in France, and then in the Holy Roman Empire, a conflict that came to be called the Thirty Years War. The prospects for Protestantism were grim indeed during that protracted struggle, until the Swedish king, Gustavus Adophus, intervened bringing relief and renewed hope to the beleagured followers of the Reformation. As a result of his significant participation, the course of the war changed, culminating finally in the great Peace of Westphalia, an agreement establishing religious tolerance across the empire, which defined a new chapter in the struggle towards religious freedom of conscience. Play Audio Play Video
33. Stuart England and American Colonial BeginningsThe reign of James I and Charles I brought into focus the rising tension between Puritan forces in the England the the entrenched commitment of traditional 'divine right' philosophy. While many of the Puritans stayed in England to work toward a new vision of English polity, others took the voyage across the sea to participate in the founding of a 'new' England, and with this venture the American experiement in republican goverance got under way. Play Audio Play Video
34. The Puritan Revolt and the Life of John BunyanThe efforts of Charles I and his chief henchman, Archbishop Laud, ultimately led to the downfall of the king and his eventual execution under the authority of the Puritan controlled Long Parliament. Oliver Cromwell led the country in an attempt to implement republican political principle, but in the end, the English people returned to monarchy, calling in Charles II to rule in England as part of the Restoration. The harsh policies of Charles led to the imprisonment of John Bunyan, the non-conformist preacher, who used his incarceration as the opportunity to write, and out of his experience came one of the best-known, and best-loved, of all Christian classics, Pilgrim's Progress.Play Audio Play Video
35. Richard Cameron - The Lion of the CovenantThe rule of Charles II (1660 - 1685) also extended to Scotland, where the Presbyterian church and state were exposed to horrific abuses, and the king fully disregarded the agreements he had made with the Scottish people when they acknowledged him as their monarch. His imposition of the Clarendon Code forced true followers of the Scottish Reformation into an underground church, meeting in conventicles, and during this 'killing time,' as it came to be called, hundreds if not thousands of Christian people were imprisoned, tortured, and executed in unimaginable and ghastly ways. The man who rose to galvanize the Scottish resistance came to be known as 'The Lion of the Covenant,' Richard Cameron, and sparked by his leadereship and courage, the repudiation of tyranny finally culminated in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Along the way, however, many very remarkable stories of courage and faith unfolded, including the famous 'Solway Martyrs,' Margaret MacLoughlan and Margaret Wilson, whose accounts are also included in this presentation.Play Audio Play Video
36. Jonathan EdwardsThe Puritan movement culminated at the beginning of the eighteenth century with the life and thought of the man universally regarded as the greatest of the Puritan divines, Jonathan Edwards. Though best known for his sermon, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, Edwards was actually a genius of ranging intellect whose contribution to theology and philosohy continue to engage scholarly interest to the present day. He was, however, much more than a great thinker, and his passion for and keen observation of the work of the Spirit of God have served to encourage and instruct students of the Christian faith, and undoubtedly will for centuries to come.Play Audio Play Video
37. George WhitefieldDuring the late colonial period of America history, it is likely that the best known, and best loved personality on the landscape was George Whitefield, the British evangelist and preacher who worked his way up and down the eastern seaboard with a gospel message that inspired the movement known as the Great Awakening. His tireless efforts, both in America and in Europe, were a wonder of the age, and one can hardly imagine how one man could maintain such a grueling schedule of non-stop preaching for over thirty years, but the universal and consistent testimony of history is that he did just that. Many have found in Whitefield the great unifying force that would galvanize the American identity in a way that would pave the way for the undertaking known as the American Revolution, but certainly he would insist that his more important contribution was to bring the gospel to as many people as he could, across the social spectrum, and in that endeavor he was truly second to none.Play Audio Play Video
38. John WesleyWhile Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield were devoting their considerable gifts to the momement known as the Great Awakening in America, John Wesley was engaged in a similar ministry of evangelism in England. While he differed from Edwards and Whitefield theologically, he nevertheless shared the powerful and urgent desire that all people, of all social classes, would hear the gospel and experience the new birth. His tireless efforts eventually gave rise to the Methodist denomination which ultimately proved to be a significant and indeed dominate force in American evangelical Christianity.Play Audio Play Video
39. John Newton and David BrainerdThe former slave trader turned Christian preacher left his most famous and enduring legacy in the beloved hymn, Amazing Grace. John Newton's life was, however, complex and troubled, with many pressures and challenges impeding his progress from a slaver to one of England's most famous and influential abolitionists. At the same time, in America, the young David Brainerd brought the message of the gospel to native tribes along the colonial frontier, and although he died very young, his life left an impact that would inspire the sweeping effort known as the modern missionary movement.Play Audio Play Video
40. William Carey and the Modern Missionary MovementThe early nineteenth century was important for many reasons, but one of the most dramatic involved the sweeping missionary effort that was determined to bring the gospel to the world. The man ordinarily viewed as the 'father' of the movement, William Carey, started out as a cobbler, but before his life was over, he was widely recognized as a person of astonishing genius, energy, and faith. This lecture outlines the major events and themes of his remarkable career. Play Audio Play Video
41. David LivingstoneJust as William Carey opened the doors for missionary labor in India, David Livingstone paved the way into the interior of Africa with a similar vision. His lifelong, lonely quest produced an explosion of knowledge of the 'dark' continent, and made Livingstone one of the most celebrated men of his age. In his own mind, however, his objective was a simple one. He only wished to see in his wake hundreds of other missionaries who would establish in Africa a Christian presence that would spread the gospel, and drive out the horrific abuses of the slave trade that dominated the African world. Play Audio Play Video
42. David Thompson and the Pacific NorthwestThe man generally credited with opening access to the Pacific Northwest overland was David Thompson, an English born immigrant to the New World when only 14 years of age. This remarkable adventurer was first and foremost a Christian, whose faith and devotion constantly informed his otherwise astonishing life of trapping, trading, mapping, negotiating, and bridge-building with the native population. His maps of the Pacific Northwest were so accurate they were regarded as authoritative well into the 20th century, and continue to reflect one of the most extraordinary accomplishments of his age. This lecture traces his career, highlighting his courage and faith, and noting the lasting legacy that others may take as a source of encouragement and hope. Play Audio Play Video
43. Jedediah Smith, the Praying TrapperWhile David Thompson was exploring, mapping, and trading in the Canadian Pacific Northwest, his American counterpart was doing the same across the southern regions of the American continent. With equal fervency in his mission, and clarity in his faith, this 'mountain man' met challenges of astonishing proportions. His unwavering constancy and courage served as an inspiration to all who knew him, and earned Jedediah the deserved reputation as the greatest American explorer after Lewis and Clark. This lecture outlines the main features of his remarkable career. Play Audio Play Video
44. Jason Lee and Mission to the NorthwestThe arrival of four Nez Perce Natives at the office of William Clark sparked a sweeping vision of the prospect of missionary labors among the Indians of the Pacific Northwest. The 'Macedonian Call' was heeded by many over the next serveral years, but the first of the Christian to venture into the great wilderness was Jason Lee, a young Canadian Methodist who opened the way to the regions of Oregon. Widely regarded as the inspiration behind the creation of the Oregon Territory, this faithful missionary devoted his life to the people he loved, leaving an impact that would permanently shape the destiny of thousands of others, the beneficiaries of his investment of life and faith.Play Audio Play Video
45. Marcus and Narcissa WhitmanThe complex and controversial career of Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, which culminated in the so-called Whitman massacre, was filled with a deep human commitment to serve in the name of Christ. The Whitmans established the mission station at Waiilatpu, near Walla Walla Washington, and faithfully served the native population for years, but in the end, forces of immigration, disease, misunderstanding, and suspicion, led to the tragic events of November 29, 1847. This lecture summarizes the major events of the remarkable career of these to heroic missionaries, and encourages us to recognize that in spite of our best efforts, unexpected twists and turns may present obstacles that appear insurmountable, but in the end good will prevail, and God's purposes will be realized in spite of, and sometimes as a result of, our apparent failures and shortcomings.Play Audio Play Video
46. Henry and Eliza SpaldingWhen Marcus and Narcissa Whitman headed west as missionaries, they took with them another newlywed missionary couple, Henry and Eliza Spalding. The Whitmans settled with the Cayuse at Waiilatpu, near Walla Walla, Washington, while Spaldings established their mission about 100 miles east with the Nez Perce, at Lapwai, Idaho. The early years of the mission were highly successful, but as waves of white settlers continued to arrive along the Oregon Trail, tensions mounted, culminating in the so-called Whitman massacre. Although the Spaldings survived the incident, they were forced to relocate to the west near Fort Vancouver. Eliza died in 1851, but Henry eventually returned to his beloved Nez Perce, and continued his missionaries labors for many years to come. Play Audio Play Video
47. George Washington Bush and George Washington, Black PioneersAmong the many who traveled west along the Oregon Trail, two were remarkable African-American men who not only pioneered notions of racial equality, but who were more pioneers of a Christian ethic and character in the face of discrimination and prejudice. The two men, George Washington Bush, and George Washington, both left an indelible imprint on the developing story of the Pacific Northwest, and both put in place deeply rooted values that served as a towering example of Christian grace, generosity, and courage, for which their legacy continues to echo into the modern age.Play Audio Play Video
48. Chief Spokane GarryIn the early years of the 19th century, the Native tribes of the Inland Pacific Northwest experience a widespread spiritual awakening, triggered largely by the remarkable chief of the Middle Spokane Tribe, Spokane Garry. Born Slough-Keetcha in 1811, Garry spent four years at the Red River Mission in Canada, an Anglican mission school, and then returned to his homeland to become the recognized Christian leader of the entire region, teaching, preaching, and encouraging his native people to embrace the 'white man's book of the Great Spirit,' the Bible, in which he had been instructed, and in which he trusted throughout his quite impressive career. This lecture details the first half of his life, in which his authority and prestige were at their height, a prestige that prepared him for the important role he would later play as advocated for peace in the midst of the rising influx of settlers during the later years of the century. Play Audio Play Video
49. Chief Spokane Garry (part 2)Chief Garry, who had been at the center of a significant spiritual awakening among the native tribes of the Inland Pacific Northwest, was gradually thrust into the position of a diplomat as the growing presence of American military forces began to put pressure on the tribal lands. Garry always stood for peace, and was at time left isolated because of his deep Christian principle. His efforts to win a reasonable accommodation for the Spokane tribes was ultimately unsuccessful, and in his later years, Garry's highly important role in negotiations was largely forgotten. He never wavered in his faith, however, and the later rediscovery of his career has served to inspire generations of admirers among both natives and non-natives alike. Play Audio Play Video
50. George WhitworthThe founder of Whitworth University was born in England, fascinated as a boy with the exploits of adventurers like David Thompson and others. Later in life, he determined to join in the missionary effort to the Pacific Northwest, and arrived in the mid 19th century as a church planter and pastor. His ranging interests and abilities involved him in many other occupations, however, not the least of which was the establishment of Sumner Adacemy, the forerunner of the university that bears his name. George Whitworth was a surveyor, farmer, activist, college president, but behind it all, he was a man of passionate Christian commitment and faith, and the deep and lasting legacy of his life continues to leave its imprint on the part of the world he so dearly loved. Play Audio Play Video
51. The Early History of First Presbyterian Church, SpokaneOne of Spokane's earliest communities of worship was First Presbyterian Church, established in the early 1880s. It has maintained a robust presence in the city over the years, remaining faithful to the vision of its original founders and members.Play Audio Play Video